Some Nerdy Shit about Supplements

For your reading pleasure, we have compiled some information on 7 common dietary supplements:

  1. Multivitamins: The quality of food today is not the same as the quality of food we had 100 years ago which is also not the same as the quality of food we evolved to eat as cavemen/women. Because of this, the nutrient profile in our foods is severely lacking (thank you pesticides and growth hormones). Therefore, it could be extremely beneficial to take a daily multivitamin to ensure that your body is getting the necessary vitamins and minerals to perform it’s daily functions. In fact, the FDA recommends taking a multivitamin to fill the nutrient gap.
  2. BCAAs: As discussed slightly in the Whey protein section of this article, Branch Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are nutrients that are useful for reducing muscle breakdown during intense exercise, has been found to improve mental concentration, and decrease fatigue [2,3]. They are amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) with a branch of a carbon atom bound to two more carbon atoms [2]. During exercise, tryptophan is produced by the body and enters the brain causing fatigue. However, an increase in concentration of BCAAs in the body decreases the amount the available tryptophan entered into the brain and subsequently decreases fatigue [3]. Furthermore, these three amino acids increase the rate of protein synthesis, which is likely to be caused by changes in signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis [4]. BCAAs are great to take during strength and endurance training as they will help make you feel less sore the next day and allow you to keep the same exercise intensity to make greater improvements to your workouts.
  3. Creatine: This is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the body from L-arginine, glycine, and L-mathionine to be transported in the blood for use by muscles. Extensive research has been done on the effects of oral supplementation of creatine and has found that it is mostly devoid of adverse side effects while improving the physiological response to weight training. Furthermore, some studies have shown that consumption of creatine has significant improvement on cognitive ability. Creatine is often used as a treatment for people with neuromuscular disorders. However, when taking creatine (specifically creatine monohydrate) it is VERY important to make sure you are consuming plenty of water. It increases the water content of your muscle cells, making you look more toned by promoting muscle fiber growth, but if too little water is consumed, creatine will sit outside those cells and bloating may occur [5,6].
  4. L-Carnitine: An amino acid that is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of fat to generate energy and is a building block for protein synthesis. In short, it is great for burning fat as fuel in your workouts! Carnitines also exhibit an antioxidant effect and has been proposed to treat a variety of health conditions [7,8]. It can be found naturally in red meats, dairy products, nuts and vegetables. 
  5. Glutamine: One of the 20 amino acids that is essential for the recovery process and is consumed naturally through beef, chicken, fish, eggs, and some vegetables. The body can make enough glutamine for its regular functions, but if you are active or do heavy exercise, your body may need more glutamine that you can consume. It is vital for removing excess waste, usually ammonia, from the body and can also boost your immune system [9].
  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Holy Moley, these are such an important fatty acid. Not only does it improve brain function and improve the health of skin and hair, it also is vital for normal metabolism regulation, reducing inflammation, and promotes heart health among a number of other benefits.
  7. CLA: Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of isomers found mostly in meats. There have been countless studies on the effect of CLA and body composition and it has been found that CLA helps your body utilize calories efficiently and improve how your body uses the food that you eat. I will eventually write more on this but I am exhausted at the moment!

 References

[1] Marshall, Keri. Therapuetic Applications of Whey Protein. Alternative Medicine Review, 2004.

[2] http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1005-BRANCHED-CHAIN%20AMINO%20ACIDS.aspx?activeIngredientId=1005&activeIngredientName=BRANCHED-CHAIN%20AMINO%20ACIDS

[3] Blomstrand, E., Hassmen, P., Ekblom, B., Newsholme, E.A. Administration of branched-chain amino acids during sustained exercise-effects on performance and on plasma concentration of some amino acids. Eur J App Physiol. 1991.

[4] Blomstrand, E., Eliasson, J., Karlsson, H., Kohnke,R. Branched-Chain Amino Acids Activate Key enzymes in Protein Synthesis After Physical Exercise. The Journal of Nutrition. 2006.

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creatine

[6] http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/creatine.html

[7] http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1026-L-CARNITINE.aspx?activeIngredientId=1026&activeIngredientName=L-CARNITIN

[8] http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/glutamine